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Who was the person credited with the concept of a world's fair?

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World's Fair
by E.L. Doctorow


This novel tells the story of Edgar Altshuler, a 9-year-old boy from the Bronx, and his adventures at the 1939 New York World’s Fair. On his first visit to the fair, Edgar is enthralled by industry's vision of the futuresafe, secure and prosperous cities, speedy and cheap transportation and modern invention to make life easier. On his second visit, he sees that the exhibits are constructed of gypsum whose paint is peeling and that the displays are really toys.
                                   
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Glossary of Antique Clock Styles
Page 2
 

Looking-Glass Clock See Column Clock.

Lyre Clock A shelf clock with a case in the shape of a lyre.

Marine Chronometer A boxed clock set in gimbals for use aboard a ship to determine longitude.

Mission Clock A type wall, shelf, or longcase clock that reflected the aesthetics of the Arts and Crafts Movement at the beginning of the 20th century. In reaction to the overly ornate mid and late Victorian styles, the craftsmen of the Arts and Crafts Movement strove to return to the basics of simple and functional design. They made these Mission-style clock cases of oak, with clean square or rectangular lines and flat surfaces, Arabic numerals, and simple pendulums.

Morbier Clock Named after the village of Morbier in France, this type of clock is was originally supposed to be housed in a full long case, often made from pine, with tapering or violin-shaped sides, frequently painted and grained in country fashion. But many owners either hung them on the wall without a case or set them on a clock shelf so that the large pendulum could swing free. Early dials of pewter or brass had black-filled numerals and a single hand. By 1760, clockmakers enameled the dials and by the late 19th century, used printed paper. A pierced brass pediment sat atop early dials. Later ones employed a wide variety of stamped brass devices, one of the most common incorporating a pair of cornucopias, a basket of flowers and a sunburst. Pendulums of stamped brass or sheet iron became overly large in the 19th century.

Moving Eye Clock See Blinker Clock.

Mystery Clock A shelf clock with a hidden method of operation. Many of these clocks are rather rare and highly sought after by collectors.

Novelty Clock A popular, all inclusive term for a large variety of small shelf clocks, usually in a case that portrays a "theme," such as a nautical, military or western motif, current events, or comic characters, and features unusual materials or functions. These clocks may incorporate an animated movement, an electric lamp, a unique style of pendulum, or some other device.

Ogee Clock An American shelf or wall clock, produced in large numbers from 1830 to 1914, with an S-shape, or wave-like, molding which frames the front of a rectangular case. It typically has a door in the front with clear glass in front of the dial and a reverse-painted or stenciled tablet below, sometimes with a clear portion for viewing the pendulum.

Picture Clock A spring-driven wall clock that’s incorporated into a framed picture or painting as part of the scene, often appearing in a church steeple or clock tower. Sometime the clock is incorporated into the frame itself above or beneath the picture.

Picture Frame Clock A wall clock with a dial surrounded by a recessed, often highly decorated apron enclosed by a "picture frame" type molding.

Pillar and Scroll Clock A shelf clock attributed to Eli Terry, an early 19th century Connecticut clockmaker Eli Terry. The clock has a full or half-round column on each side of the front of the case, centering a double scroll-cut pediment, usually with three finials.

Plato Clock Small carriage size clock with cards that flip to show the hours and minutes in digital fashion.

Portico or Pillar Clock A French shelf clock with a drum shaped movement mounted between two or four pillars standing on a base, with an exposed pendulum swinging between them.

Schoolhouse Clock See Drop Dial Clock.

Shelf Clock Any clock case designed to sit on a shelf, table or mantel, as opposite to a longcase clock or a wall clock.

Ship's Clock A clock that strikes on a ship's bell system.

Skeleton Clock A clock, dating from the late 18th and early 19th centuries, that emphasized the movement as a decorative object in itself. Plates were cut out and made as narrow as possible, so the movement could be seen. The clock, its surfaces highly finished, was usually protected by a glass dome.

Statue Clock See Figural Clock.

Steeple Clock An American shelf clock, dating from about 1840, with a Gothic-style case, its pointed top flanked by two or four "steeples."

Swinging Arm Clock A shelf clock usually mounted in the form of a pendulum suspended from the arm of a statue.

Tambour Clock Originating around 1900, people commonly refer to this type of clock as a "Napoleon's Hat", "camelback" or "humpback" clock because of its shape, which is rounded in the middle tapering to flat on each side.

Tallcase Clock An American term for a floor standing clock. Also called a longcase clock, a long clock, or a grandfather clock.

Tape (or Annular) Clock A round or horizontally circular shelf clock with the divisions of time shown on a tape-like dial wrapped around the case. Unlike most clocks, where the hands move around the dial, the "tape" dial usually revolved while a fixed pointer indicated the time.

Transitional Clock See Column Clock.

Triple Decker Clock See Column Clock.

Vienna Regulator Originally, this referred to an extremely accurate, weight-driven wall clock produced in Austria during the early 1800s, later imitated by German and American manufacturers from the 1850s to 1900. Later versions often have spring driven movements with pendulums that are only for show.

Wag-on-the-Wall Clock An uncased, weight-driven mechanical wall clock with an exposed dial, pendulum and weights. During the late 18th and early 19th century in the United States, most clockmakers only produced uncased clock mechanisms. Independent cabinet or furniture makers were normally commissioned to build clock cases for these finished clock mechanisms. Often the buyer hung the uncased clock mechanism on the wall until a case could be made.

Wall Clock Any clock that hangs on the wall.

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